H Social Sciences (General). Introduction. One of the tasks of a realist evaluation is therefore to make the theories within a program explicit, by developing clear hypotheses about how, and for whom, programs might ‘work’. This paper therefore fills a gap by describing, in detail, the process used for a realist review and synthesis to answer the question ‘what interventions … Approaches (on this site) refer to an integrated package of options (methods or processes). 189–190; Hammersley, 1998, p. 3; Suppe, 1977, p. 618); realism has been prominent in other areas of philosophy as well (Miller, 2010). Appendix II – ‘Varieties of realist evaluation’: pocket illustrations of quantitative, qualitative, formative and synthetic applications. Resources list on 'realist' evaluation . EVALUATION. The paper provides a very brief introduction to the key ideas in realist evaluation and the implications of a realist approach for impact evaluation questions, evaluation design, programme theory, data collection, analysis and I have read and I accept the terms of BetterEvaluation’s. An impact evaluation approach which unpacks  an initiative’s theory of change, provides a framework to collect data on immediate, basic changes that lead to longer, more transformative change, and allows for the plausible assessment of the initiative’s contribution to results via ‘boundary partners’. The Success Case Method (SCM) involves identifying the most and least successful cases in a program and examining them in detail. Realist evaluation is a valuable method for addressing the complexity of social programmes. We also posit that we are currently observing the emergence of a fifth generation in evaluation: the explanation generation. Evaluation has become progressively popular within public health and healthcare programme research, with an emphasis on outcomes and … It is a useful approach to document stories of impact and to develop an understanding of the factors that enhance or impede impact. Complex interventions ... drawing on realist approaches to evaluation and suggesting what sorts of evidence and information local decision-makers need to draw on. Synthesise data from a single evaluation, The nature of programmes and how they work, Basic concepts in the explanation and understanding of programmes, Strategies and methods of realist evaluation, Realism’s place in the policy cycle: formative, summative and synthetic approaches, The nature, presentation and use of findings from realist evaluation, Conclusion: strengths, limitations and relationships with other approaches. – based on a realist philosophy of science (ontology) – looks for mechanisms and middle-range theories. Abstract Background: The realist approach is a form of theory-driven evaluation developed to strengthen the explanatory power of evaluation studies and contribute to evidence-based policy and practice. An approach to decision-making in evaluation that involves identifying the primary intended users and uses of an evaluation and then making all decisions in terms of the evaluation design and plan with reference to these. Doing Realist Research combines the foundations of the realist methodology with the very latest thinking in the application, and development, of the approach.From understanding mechanisms, and the formulation of programme theories, to understanding the role of … The use of simulation-based education (SBE) is increasing and so too is the evidence supporting its value as a powerful technique which can lead to substantial educational benefits. Be able to explain who and why to recruit to a realist research project team; Describe and explain the pros and cons of using quality and publication standards in realist research . The UK population is getting older—by 2031 it is estimated that one in five people will be over 65 years old. Thus realism does involve being realistic. A particular type of case study used to jointly develop an agreed narrative of how an innovation was developed, including key contributors and processes, to inform future innovation efforts. View in Scopus. The implementation of the program, and the evaluation of it, then tests those hypotheses. Realist evaluation is a type of theory-driven evaluation method used in evaluating social programmes. It seeks to understand ‘what works, for who, in what circumstances and why’ rather than providing one-off verdicts on programme … Powered By Scopus® Data. They are It is based on the epistemological foundations of critical realism. This article describes the key features of realist (realistic) evaluation and illustrates their application using, as an example, a simulation-based course for final year medical students. Participants were 20 interdisciplinary staff nominating as CoP members between Nov 2013-Nov 2015 representing 13 facilities (approximately 780 beds) of a RAC organisation. It describes five key ideas which frame realism and their implications for impact evaluation. • Wong G, Greenhalgh T, Westhorp G, Pawson R. Realist methods in medical education research: what are they and what can they contribute? NCBI Bookshelf. Realism research philosophy relies on the idea of independence of reality from the human mind. It gives a brief introduction to the philosophical assumptions underlying realist methods and outlines key principles of realist evaluation (designed for empirical studies) and realist review (the application of realist methods to secondary research). Realist impact evaluation is an approach to impact evaluation that emphasises the importance of context for programme outcomes. This question is for testing whether you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. While we do not seek to replicate this debate here, we acknowledge the possibility of using a critical realist approach to understand the outcomes of an RCT in primary care. In this article we defend the idea that theory-based evaluations—contribution analysis, logic analysis, and realist evaluation—are complementary components of a new theory in evaluation. It provides an explanatory analysis aimed at discerning what works for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects and how. An approach that focuses on assessing the value of an intervention as perceived by the (intended) beneficiaries, thereby aiming to give voice to their priorities and concerns. It describes five key ideas which frame realism and their implications for impact evaluation. It is a generic approach that can be applied to many fields of research, including health and social care. For realist evaluations (RE) this project aims to: develop quality and reporting standards and training materials; build capacity for undertaking and critically evaluating them; produce resources and training materials for lay participants, and those seeking to involve them. Realist evaluation: an introduction Realist evaluation is a theory-driven approach to evaluating evidence from complex interventions. There are few published examples of realist synthesis. Realism is an approach to humanity which recognizes the real existence of social objects as well as physical objects. An approach especially to impact evaluation which examines what works for whom in what circumstances through what causal mechanisms, including changes in the reasoning and resources of participants. Evaluation has become progressively popular within public health and healthcare programme research, with an emphasis on outcomes and … Approach primarily intended to clarify differences in values among stakeholders by collecting and collectively analysing personal accounts of change. Check the results are consistent with causal contribution, 3. A Realist Approach to Qualitative Data Analysis: Interviews With Indigenous Patients With Cancer; Epistemology and Metaphysics for Qualitative Research; Researching Social Exclusion & Vulnerability Using Realist Methods; An Introduction to Critical Management Research; An Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology Various ways of doing evaluation in ways that support democratic decision making, accountability and/or capacity. The realist approach to evaluation research: an introduction. Cited 9 times in Google Scholar. It explains when a realist impact evaluation may be most appropriate and outlines how to design and conduct an impact evaluation based on a realist approach. (2008). Define ethical and quality evaluation standards, 6. Introduction to Evaluation Evaluation utilizes many of the same methodologies used in traditional social research, but because evaluation takes place within a political and organizational context, it requires group skills, management ability, political dexterity, sensitivity to multiple stakeholders and other skills that social research in general does not rely on as much. Strategies and methods of realist evaluation 4. principles of realist methodology I have discussed today remain: 1)Both the material and social world are real. 18 Gauge Cordless Nail Gun, Liam Aiken Married, Sound Of Gray Whales, Gallop Meaning In Gujarati, Missing Textures Blender, Do Sponges Have Gills, " />

the realist approach to evaluation research:an introduction

Background. approach for over 30 years (Baert, 1998, pp. We are a global collaboration aimed at improving evaluation practice and theory through co-creation, curation, and sharing information. 1 Older people are the main recipients of care in the National Health Service (NHS), and older people's care costs the UK NHS relatively more than those of working age. 26 Causal explanations are expressed as contingent relationships between mechanisms (changes in participants’ reasoning or resources), context (contingencies) and outcomes, often abbreviated to context-mechanism-outcome configuration (CMO) to show how … It describes five key ideas which frame realism and their implications for impact evaluation. Be the first to comment on this page! A way to jointly develop an agreed narrative of how an innovation was developed, including key contributors and processes, to inform future innovation efforts. This paper introduces the realist approach and explains why it is particularly suited to education research. Data were collected through a national scoping and survey, and qualitative methods to track patient and public involvement processes and impact over time within 22 nationally funded research projects. This approach was developed by Robert Brinkerhoff to assess the impact of organisational interventions, such as training and coaching, though the use of SCM is not limited to this context. Introduction. A particular type of case study used  to create a narrative of how institutional arrangements have evolved over time and have created and contributed to more effective ways to achieve project or program goals. Content: This article introduces the reader to the realist approach and outlines its application in empirical evaluation studies and literature syntheses. But more importantly, it asserts that the things we are studying in social research have some prior existence and would continue to exist even if our knowledge of them was limited. The second section of the review introduces retroduction, a major methodological starting-point common to most realists. The realist approach is a form of theory-driven evaluation developed to strengthen the explanatory power of evaluation studies and contribute to evidence-based policy and practice. The introduction to the chapter covers ontology as it relates to research methods. Realist research approaches • Realist evaluation = primary research • Realist review / synthesis = secondary research • Both approaches: – have more of an explanatory rather than judgmental focus. In this workshop, participants will explore the advantage of using realist methodology to go beyond the question of ‘did an intervention work or not?’ to addressing questions about how, for whom, and under what circumstances interventions produce their particular outcomes. That is, whenever a program is implemented, it is testing a theory about what ‘might cause change’, even though that theory may not be explicit. Unlike the existing literature that borrows critical realist perspectives to conduct analysis that is essentially thematic, we offer a comprehensive approach to the analysis of qualitative data that employs realist concepts of context, mechanism, and outcome. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. "A realist approach assumes that programs are “theories incarnate”. This introduction aims to explain realist impact evaluation for those unfamiliar with its principles. Conclusions: Realist evaluation and realist synthesis are an advanced approach to evaluation research, but they offer an innovative and insightful means by which to further our understanding of complex social interventions. (Community Matters 2004-2008), Community Matters. This introduction aims to explain realist impact evaluation for those unfamiliar with its principles. Based on specific theories, realist evaluation provides an alternative lens to empiricist evaluation techniques for the study and understanding of programmes and policies. Document management processes and agreements, 7. Thus realism does involve being realistic. Develop planning documents for the evaluation or M&E system, 8. Review evaluation (do meta-evaluation), 2. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997 An participatory approach to value-for-money evaluation that identifies a broad range of social outcomes, not only the direct outcomes for the intended beneficiaries of an intervention. It seeks to understand ‘what works, for who, in what circumstances and why’ rather than providing one-off verdicts on programme … Realist evaluation is a valuable method for addressing the complexity of social programmes. This paper describes the Learning Evaluation, a methodological approach that blends quality improvement and implementation research methods to study healthcare innovations. A range of approaches that engage stakeholders (especially intended beneficiaries) in conducting the evaluation and/or making decisions about the evaluation​. Among the realist evaluation community, there is heated debate about whether randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are a credible method for understanding complex interventions . An impact evaluation approach suitable for retrospectively identifying emergent impacts by collecting evidence of what has changed  and, then, working backwards, determining whether and how an intervention has contributed to these changes. In knowledge translation, complex interventions may be implemented in the attempt to improve uptake of research-based knowledge in practice. Applying a realist(ic) framework to the evaluation of a new model of emergency department based mental health nursing practice. An impact evaluation approach without a control group that uses narrative causal statements elicited directly from intended project beneficiaries. View in Google Scholar, Cited 24 times in Scopus. Doing Realist Research combines the foundations of the realist methodology with the very latest thinking in the application, and development, of the approach.From understanding mechanisms, and the formulation of programme theories, to understanding the role of … Medical Education 2012, 46:1, 89–96 • Klee R. Introduction to the philosophy of science. It is a generic approach that can be applied to many fields of research, including health and social care. Realist evaluations are based on a particular philosophy (realism). This introduction will help evaluators and commissioners of evaluations to decide whether a realist approach is appropriate for evaluating the impact of a particular policy or programme. Realist approaches are a form of theory-driven evaluation which search for and refine explanations of programme effectiveness, however, several realist studies have been identified which lack this essential process (Pawson and Manzano-Santaella, 2012). The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. The nature of programmes and how they work 2. Rycroft-Malone J, Burton CR, Williams L, et al. Realist approaches to evaluation assume that nothing works everywhere or for everyone: context really does make a difference to programme outcomes. That is, whenever a program is implemented, it is testing a theory about what ‘might cause change’, even though that theory may not … It provides an explanatory analysis aimed at discerning what works for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects and how. INTRODUCTION. There are currently no comments. As realist approaches gain momentum in the evaluation of complex social programmes and interventions, attention is turning to how other approaches can complement realist … Introduction: Realist evaluation is an increasingly popular methodology in health services research. Basic concepts in the explanation and understanding of programmes 3. Realist researchers then try to articulate the theories (termed 'mechanisms') that underpin the programme and explore how contexts influence the mechanisms to produce different programme outcomes. The paper provides a very brief introduction to the key ideas in realist evaluation and the implications of a realist approach for impact evaluation questions, evaluation design, programme theory, data collection, analysis and Its overall place in the toolkit of evaluation approaches is not yet fully established. Drawing on our own experiences, we make the case that, used in conjunction with a realist approach, Soft Systems Methodology can provide a useful tool to a) map programme complexity, and b) develop and refine stakeholders programme theories, thus increasing the transparency, reliability, validity and accuracy of the theory building and refining process in realist approaches. 3)Interventions (and research) are ‘theory incarnate’ 4)All (social) systems are open, yet context matters in every explanation. Learning Evaluation is an approach to multi … Click an approach on the left to navigate to it Realist evaluation is a type of theory-driven evaluation method used in evaluating social programmes. An impact evaluation approach that compares results between a randomly assigned control group and experimental group or groups to produce an estimate of the mean net impact of an intervention. 11 We describe an approach to considering these … Genevieve Coorey, David Peiris, Lis Neubeck, Julie Redfern, A realist evaluation approach to explaining the role of context in the impact of a complex eHealth intervention for improving prevention of cardiovascular disease, BMC Health Services Research, 10.1186/s12913-020-05597-5, 20, 1, (2020). The nature, presentation and use of findings from realist evaluation 6. An impact evaluation approach based on contribution analysis, with the addition of processes for expert review and community review of evidence and conclusions. This philosophy is based on the assumption of a scientific approach to the development of knowledge. An approach used to surface, elaborate, and critically consider the options and implications of boundary judgments, that is, the ways in which people/groups decide what is relevant to what is being evaluated. Retrieved from http://www.communitymatters.com.au/gpage1.html. A strengths-based approach designed to support ongoing learning and adaptation by identifying and investigating outlier examples of good practice and ways of increasing their frequency. Genevieve Coorey, David Peiris, Lis Neubeck, Julie Redfern, A realist evaluation approach to explaining the role of context in the impact of a complex eHealth intervention for improving prevention of cardiovascular disease, BMC Health Services Research, 10.1186/s12913-020-05597-5, 20, 1, (2020). What are realist evaluation and synthesis? Traditional evaluation efforts that focus on aggregate effectiveness represent an oversimplification of both the environment and the interventions themselves. evaluation approaches may not be feasible, with the broader aim of identifying lessons with wider application potential. Introduction 1. Realism can be divided into two groups: direct and critical. The third section reviews concretely the realist debate over statistics and some realist contributions to qualitative methodology, qualitative Realist evaluation is a theory-driven approach to evaluating evidence from complex interventions. REALIST . G. Hewitt, S. Sims, R. Harris; Medicine; 1 May 2012; Background: The realist approach is a form of theory-driven evaluation developed to strengthen the explanatory power of evaluation studies and contribute to … Student Feedback "I found the 5 days to be an excellent introduction and overview of realist evaluation and realist synthesis. An approach designed to support ongoing learning and adaptation, which identifies the processes required to achieve desired results, and then observes whether those processes take place, and how. Introduction. Realist approaches to evaluation assume that nothing works everywhere or for everyone: context really does make a difference to programme outcomes. 'http':'https';if(!d.getElementById(id)){js=d.createElement(s);js.id=id;js.src=p+"://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js";fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js,fjs);}}(document,"script","twitter-wjs"); Select a content type to filter search results: A special thanks to this page's contributors. Cutting nature at its seams. Appendix III – ‘Would it work here?’: a grid to help decide on the feasibility of mounting a programme ‘on your patch’. The core principle is that we should make explicit the underlying assumptions about how an An approach especially to impact evaluation which examines what works for whom in what circumstances through what causal mechanisms, including changes in the reasoning and resources of participants. A research design that focuses on understanding a unit (person, site or project) in its context, which can use a combination of qualitative and quantitative data. For example, 'Randomized Controlled Trials' (RCTs) use a combination of the options random sampling, control group and standardised indicators and measures. The designers of realist evaluations have developed some key assumptions, based on this philosophy. For realist evaluations (RE) this project aims to: develop quality and reporting standards and training materials; build capacity for undertaking and critically evaluating them; produce resources and training materials for lay participants, and those seeking to involve them. Aarons et al argue for ‘borrowing strength’ from evidence from earlier outcome evaluations to allow for evaluation in a new setting to focus on process rather than outcomes, but do not provide detail of how such decisions can be made beyond the assessment of similarity of population and intervention mechanisms in the new context. Improving skills and care standards in the support workforce for older people: a realist synthesis of workforce development interventions. Define ethical and quality evaluation standards, Document management processes and agreements, Develop planning documents for the evaluation or M&E system, Develop programme theory / theory of change, activities, outcomes, impacts and context, Combine qualitative and quantitative data, Check the results are consistent with causal contribution, Investigate possible alternative explanations, Sustained and emerging impacts evaluation (SEIE), Technology and evaluation in insecure settings, Evaluation practice in Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander settings, http://www.communitymatters.com.au/gpage1.html, 3. Investigate possible alternative explanations, 1. Applying a realist(ic) framework to the evaluation of a new model of emergency department based mental health nursing practice. An approach designed to support ongoing learning and adaptation, through iterative, embedded evaluation. It explains when a realist impact evaluation may be most Realism’s place in the policy cycle: formative, summative and synthetic approaches 5. Direct realism, also known as naive realism, can be described as “what you see is what you get”[1]. This can be in a narrative form or expressed as ‘CMO’ equations, which describe the Context and Mechanisms that can lead to wanted Outcomes. Realist Evaluation. A Realist Approach to Qualitative Data Analysis: Interviews With Indigenous Patients With Cancer; Epistemology and Metaphysics for Qualitative Research; Researching Social Exclusion & Vulnerability Using Realist Methods; An Introduction to Critical Management Research; An Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology A realist approach assumes that programs are “theories incarnate”. Recommend content, collaborate, share, ask, tell us what you like, suggest an improvement, or just say hi! https://www.ijtr.co.uk/cgi-bin/go.pl/library/artic... Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement (DECIPHer), H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General). Introduction. One of the tasks of a realist evaluation is therefore to make the theories within a program explicit, by developing clear hypotheses about how, and for whom, programs might ‘work’. This paper therefore fills a gap by describing, in detail, the process used for a realist review and synthesis to answer the question ‘what interventions … Approaches (on this site) refer to an integrated package of options (methods or processes). 189–190; Hammersley, 1998, p. 3; Suppe, 1977, p. 618); realism has been prominent in other areas of philosophy as well (Miller, 2010). Appendix II – ‘Varieties of realist evaluation’: pocket illustrations of quantitative, qualitative, formative and synthetic applications. Resources list on 'realist' evaluation . EVALUATION. The paper provides a very brief introduction to the key ideas in realist evaluation and the implications of a realist approach for impact evaluation questions, evaluation design, programme theory, data collection, analysis and I have read and I accept the terms of BetterEvaluation’s. An impact evaluation approach which unpacks  an initiative’s theory of change, provides a framework to collect data on immediate, basic changes that lead to longer, more transformative change, and allows for the plausible assessment of the initiative’s contribution to results via ‘boundary partners’. The Success Case Method (SCM) involves identifying the most and least successful cases in a program and examining them in detail. Realist evaluation is a valuable method for addressing the complexity of social programmes. We also posit that we are currently observing the emergence of a fifth generation in evaluation: the explanation generation. Evaluation has become progressively popular within public health and healthcare programme research, with an emphasis on outcomes and … It is a useful approach to document stories of impact and to develop an understanding of the factors that enhance or impede impact. Complex interventions ... drawing on realist approaches to evaluation and suggesting what sorts of evidence and information local decision-makers need to draw on. Synthesise data from a single evaluation, The nature of programmes and how they work, Basic concepts in the explanation and understanding of programmes, Strategies and methods of realist evaluation, Realism’s place in the policy cycle: formative, summative and synthetic approaches, The nature, presentation and use of findings from realist evaluation, Conclusion: strengths, limitations and relationships with other approaches. – based on a realist philosophy of science (ontology) – looks for mechanisms and middle-range theories. Abstract Background: The realist approach is a form of theory-driven evaluation developed to strengthen the explanatory power of evaluation studies and contribute to evidence-based policy and practice. An approach to decision-making in evaluation that involves identifying the primary intended users and uses of an evaluation and then making all decisions in terms of the evaluation design and plan with reference to these. Doing Realist Research combines the foundations of the realist methodology with the very latest thinking in the application, and development, of the approach.From understanding mechanisms, and the formulation of programme theories, to understanding the role of … The use of simulation-based education (SBE) is increasing and so too is the evidence supporting its value as a powerful technique which can lead to substantial educational benefits. Be able to explain who and why to recruit to a realist research project team; Describe and explain the pros and cons of using quality and publication standards in realist research . The UK population is getting older—by 2031 it is estimated that one in five people will be over 65 years old. Thus realism does involve being realistic. A particular type of case study used to jointly develop an agreed narrative of how an innovation was developed, including key contributors and processes, to inform future innovation efforts. View in Scopus. The implementation of the program, and the evaluation of it, then tests those hypotheses. Realist evaluation is a type of theory-driven evaluation method used in evaluating social programmes. It seeks to understand ‘what works, for who, in what circumstances and why’ rather than providing one-off verdicts on programme … Powered By Scopus® Data. They are It is based on the epistemological foundations of critical realism. This article describes the key features of realist (realistic) evaluation and illustrates their application using, as an example, a simulation-based course for final year medical students. Participants were 20 interdisciplinary staff nominating as CoP members between Nov 2013-Nov 2015 representing 13 facilities (approximately 780 beds) of a RAC organisation. It describes five key ideas which frame realism and their implications for impact evaluation. • Wong G, Greenhalgh T, Westhorp G, Pawson R. Realist methods in medical education research: what are they and what can they contribute? NCBI Bookshelf. Realism research philosophy relies on the idea of independence of reality from the human mind. It gives a brief introduction to the philosophical assumptions underlying realist methods and outlines key principles of realist evaluation (designed for empirical studies) and realist review (the application of realist methods to secondary research). Realist impact evaluation is an approach to impact evaluation that emphasises the importance of context for programme outcomes. This question is for testing whether you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. While we do not seek to replicate this debate here, we acknowledge the possibility of using a critical realist approach to understand the outcomes of an RCT in primary care. In this article we defend the idea that theory-based evaluations—contribution analysis, logic analysis, and realist evaluation—are complementary components of a new theory in evaluation. It provides an explanatory analysis aimed at discerning what works for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects and how. An approach that focuses on assessing the value of an intervention as perceived by the (intended) beneficiaries, thereby aiming to give voice to their priorities and concerns. It describes five key ideas which frame realism and their implications for impact evaluation. It is a generic approach that can be applied to many fields of research, including health and social care. For realist evaluations (RE) this project aims to: develop quality and reporting standards and training materials; build capacity for undertaking and critically evaluating them; produce resources and training materials for lay participants, and those seeking to involve them. Realist evaluation: an introduction Realist evaluation is a theory-driven approach to evaluating evidence from complex interventions. There are few published examples of realist synthesis. Realism is an approach to humanity which recognizes the real existence of social objects as well as physical objects. An approach especially to impact evaluation which examines what works for whom in what circumstances through what causal mechanisms, including changes in the reasoning and resources of participants. Evaluation has become progressively popular within public health and healthcare programme research, with an emphasis on outcomes and … Approach primarily intended to clarify differences in values among stakeholders by collecting and collectively analysing personal accounts of change. Check the results are consistent with causal contribution, 3. A Realist Approach to Qualitative Data Analysis: Interviews With Indigenous Patients With Cancer; Epistemology and Metaphysics for Qualitative Research; Researching Social Exclusion & Vulnerability Using Realist Methods; An Introduction to Critical Management Research; An Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology Various ways of doing evaluation in ways that support democratic decision making, accountability and/or capacity. The realist approach to evaluation research: an introduction. Cited 9 times in Google Scholar. It explains when a realist impact evaluation may be most appropriate and outlines how to design and conduct an impact evaluation based on a realist approach. (2008). Define ethical and quality evaluation standards, 6. Introduction to Evaluation Evaluation utilizes many of the same methodologies used in traditional social research, but because evaluation takes place within a political and organizational context, it requires group skills, management ability, political dexterity, sensitivity to multiple stakeholders and other skills that social research in general does not rely on as much. Strategies and methods of realist evaluation 4. principles of realist methodology I have discussed today remain: 1)Both the material and social world are real.

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